↓ Skip to main content

Neurotoxicity of Metals

Overview of attention for book
Attention for Chapter 17: Thallium Toxicity: General Issues, Neurological Symptoms, and Neurotoxic Mechanisms
Altmetric Badge

Mentioned by

1 X user


23 Dimensions

Readers on

60 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Chapter title
Thallium Toxicity: General Issues, Neurological Symptoms, and Neurotoxic Mechanisms
Chapter number 17
Book title
Neurotoxicity of Metals
Published in
Advances in neurobiology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-60189-2_17
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-960188-5, 978-3-31-960189-2

Laura Osorio-Rico, Abel Santamaria, Sonia Galván-Arzate


Thallium (Tl(+)) is a ubiquitous natural trace metal considered as the most toxic among heavy metals. The ionic ratio of Tl(+) is similar to that of potassium (K(+)), therefore accounting for the replacement of the latter during enzymatic reactions. The principal organelle damaged after Tl(+) exposure is mitochondria. Studies on the mechanisms of Tl(+) include intrinsic pathways altered and changes in antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c, and caspases. Oxidative damage pathways increase after Tl(+) exposure to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in physical properties of the cell membrane caused by lipid peroxidation, and concomitant activation of antioxidant mechanisms. These processes are likely to account for the neurotoxic effects of the metal. In humans, Tl(+) is absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and then is widely distributed throughout the body to be accumulated in bones, renal medulla, liver, and the Central Nervous System. Given the growing relevance of Tl(+) intoxication, in recent years there is a notorious increase in the number of reports attending Tl(+) pollution in different countries. In this sense, the neurological symptoms produced by Tl(+) and its neurotoxic effects are gaining attention as they represent a serious health problem all over the world. Through this review, we present an update to general information about Tl(+) toxicity, making emphasis on some recent data about Tl(+) neurotoxicity, as a field requiring attention at the clinical and preclinical levels.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 X user who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 60 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 60 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 12 20%
Student > Bachelor 9 15%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 10%
Student > Postgraduate 5 8%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 7%
Other 8 13%
Unknown 16 27%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 15%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 8 13%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 10%
Chemistry 5 8%
Neuroscience 5 8%
Other 8 13%
Unknown 19 32%