Neurotoxicity of Vanadium.
Neurotoxicity of Metals
Advances in neurobiology, January 2017
Ngwa, Hilary Afeseh, Ay, Muhammet, Jin, Huajun, Anantharam, Vellareddy, Kanthasamy, Arthi, Kanthasamy, Anumantha G, Hilary Afeseh Ngwa, Muhammet Ay, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy
Vanadium (V) is a transition metal that presents in multiple oxidation states and numerous inorganic compounds and is also an ultra-trace element considered to be essential for most living organisms. Despite being one of the lightest metals, V offers high structural strength and good corrosion resistance and thus has been widely adopted for high-strength steel manufacturing. High doses of V exposure are toxic, and inhalation exposure to V adversely affects the respiratory system. The neurotoxicological properties of V are just beginning to be identified. Recent studies by our group and others demonstrate the neurotoxic potential of this metal in the nigrostriatal system and other parts of the central nervous system (CNS). The neurotoxic effects of V have been mainly attributed to its ability to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is noteworthy that the neurotoxicity induced by occupational V exposure commonly occurs with co-exposure to other metals, especially manganese (Mn). This review focuses on the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and neurotoxicity of V.
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