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Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity

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Cover of 'Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity'

Table of Contents

  1. Altmetric Badge
    Book Overview
  2. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 1 Epidemiology of Gender Differences in Diabetes and Obesity
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    Chapter 2 Sex Differences in Body Composition
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    Chapter 3 Cellular Mechanisms Driving Sex Differences in Adipose Tissue Biology and Body Shape in Humans and Mouse Models
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    Chapter 4 Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: Sex Differences in Insulin Action and Secretion
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    Chapter 5 The Role of Sex and Sex Hormones in Regulating Obesity-Induced Inflammation
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    Chapter 6 Sex Differences in Leptin Control of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Metabolic Diseases
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    Chapter 7 Sex Effects at the Ramparts: Nutrient- and Microbe-Mediated Regulation of the Immune-Metabolic Interface
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    Chapter 8 Sexual Dimorphism and Estrogen Action in Mouse Liver
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    Chapter 9 Sex Differences in Muscle Wasting
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    Chapter 10 Origins and Functions of the Ventrolateral VMH: A Complex Neuronal Cluster Orchestrating Sex Differences in Metabolism and Behavior
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    Chapter 11 Menopause, Estrogens, and Glucose Homeostasis in Women
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    Chapter 12 Role of Estrogens in the Regulation of Liver Lipid Metabolism
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    Chapter 13 The Role of Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptors in Metabolic Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity
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    Chapter 14 Estrogens and Body Weight Regulation in Men
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    Chapter 15 Estradiol Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis
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    Chapter 16 Brain Estrogens and Feeding Behavior
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    Chapter 17 Sex Differences and Role of Estradiol in Hypoglycemia-Associated Counter-Regulation
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    Chapter 18 The Role of Estrogens in Pancreatic Islet Physiopathology
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    Chapter 19 Nuclear and Membrane Actions of Estrogen Receptor Alpha: Contribution to the Regulation of Energy and Glucose Homeostasis
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    Chapter 20 G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) and Sex-Specific Metabolic Homeostasis
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    Chapter 21 Sex-Dependent Role of Estrogen Sulfotransferase and Steroid Sulfatase in Metabolic Homeostasis
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    Chapter 22 Negative Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Therapy on Metabolic and Sexual Function in Men
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    Chapter 23 Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)
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    Chapter 24 Sex Differences in Androgen Regulation of Metabolism in Nonhuman Primates
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    Chapter 25 Prenatal Testosterone Programming of Insulin Resistance in the Female Sheep
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    Chapter 26 The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women
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    Chapter 27 Sex, Gender, and Transgender: Metabolic Impact of Cross Hormone Therapy
Attention for Chapter 22: Negative Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Therapy on Metabolic and Sexual Function in Men
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
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  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (88th percentile)

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Chapter title
Negative Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Therapy on Metabolic and Sexual Function in Men
Chapter number 22
Book title
Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-70178-3_22
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-970177-6, 978-3-31-970178-3
Authors

Abdulmaged M. Traish, Traish, Abdulmaged M.

Abstract

Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions. Thus, androgen deficiency (also referred to as hypogonadism) is a well-recognized medical condition and if remained untreated will have a negative impact on human health and quality of life.In this chapter, we have summarized the negative impact of T deficiency (TD) on a host of physiological functions including reduced lean body mass (LBM), increased fat mass (FM), increased insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and adiposity, reduced bone mineral density (BMD), anemia, sexual dysfunction, and reduced quality of life and increased mortality. In addition, we discuss another critical aspect of unrecognized form of androgen deficiency resulting from inhibition of 5α-reductases with drugs, such as finasteride and dutasteride, to block transformation of T into 5α-DHT in the course of treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male pattern hair loss, also known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The negative impact of drugs that inhibit transformation of T to 5α-DHT by 5α-reductases on metabolic function is manifested in fat accumulation in the liver, which may predispose to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Also, inhibition of 5α-DHT formation increases glucose synthesis and reduces glucose disposal potentially contributing to hyperglycemia, IR, and elevated activities of liver function enzymes concomitant with reduction in circulating T levels, worsening erectile dysfunction (ED), and reduced quality of life.Although we have attempted to summarize the current literature pertaining to this critical topic "androgen deficiency" and its impact on men's health and quality of life, there remain many gaps in the knowledge regarding the biochemical pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of androgen deficiency. We wish to clearly state that there are areas of controversies, including whether age-related androgen deficiency (functional hypogonadism) merits treatment and whether T therapy provided real proven benefits. Finally, considerable debate exists with respect to the potential and purported cardiovascular (CV) risks of treating TD with exogenous T. For brevity sake, we will not discuss in detail the benefits of T therapy in men with TD since this topic is comprehensively covered by Dr. F. Saad's chapter in this book, entitled "Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)."We have made a concerted effort to address the controversy of T therapy in men with TD in the discussion. However, we wish to acknowledge that these issues will remain a matter of debate for some time to come. Only with advances in fundamental basic science and clinical research, some of these controversial issues may be laid to rest. Nevertheless, we believe that there is considerable body of credible evidence to suggest that T therapy of men with TD is safe and effective and provides a host of health benefits and therefore merits considerations in men with TD, irrespective of the underlying cause or etiology. An additional aspect of androgen deficiency is the drug-induced reduction in 5α-DHT levels by the use of 5α-reductase inhibitors. We also believe that physicians prescribing 5α-reductase inhibitors (i.e., finasteride or dutasteride) for relief of BPH symptoms or treatment of hair loss should engage their patients in a productive discussion regarding the potential adverse side effects of these medications on their overall health and quality of life.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 79 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 79 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 13 16%
Researcher 8 10%
Student > Ph. D. Student 7 9%
Student > Bachelor 6 8%
Professor > Associate Professor 4 5%
Other 10 13%
Unknown 31 39%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 15 19%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 8%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 6 8%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 6%
Nursing and Health Professions 4 5%
Other 12 15%
Unknown 31 39%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 9. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 March 2021.
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#4,006,882
of 24,597,084 outputs
Outputs from Advances in experimental medicine and biology
#656
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#75,163
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Outputs of similar age from Advances in experimental medicine and biology
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So far Altmetric has tracked 5,207 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.7. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its peers.
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