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Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity

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Cover of 'Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity'

Table of Contents

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    Book Overview
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    Chapter 1 Epidemiology of Gender Differences in Diabetes and Obesity
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    Chapter 2 Sex Differences in Body Composition
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    Chapter 3 Cellular Mechanisms Driving Sex Differences in Adipose Tissue Biology and Body Shape in Humans and Mouse Models
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    Chapter 4 Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: Sex Differences in Insulin Action and Secretion
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    Chapter 5 The Role of Sex and Sex Hormones in Regulating Obesity-Induced Inflammation
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    Chapter 6 Sex Differences in Leptin Control of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Metabolic Diseases
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    Chapter 7 Sex Effects at the Ramparts: Nutrient- and Microbe-Mediated Regulation of the Immune-Metabolic Interface
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    Chapter 8 Sexual Dimorphism and Estrogen Action in Mouse Liver
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    Chapter 9 Sex Differences in Muscle Wasting
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    Chapter 10 Origins and Functions of the Ventrolateral VMH: A Complex Neuronal Cluster Orchestrating Sex Differences in Metabolism and Behavior
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    Chapter 11 Menopause, Estrogens, and Glucose Homeostasis in Women
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    Chapter 12 Role of Estrogens in the Regulation of Liver Lipid Metabolism
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    Chapter 13 The Role of Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptors in Metabolic Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity
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    Chapter 14 Estrogens and Body Weight Regulation in Men
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    Chapter 15 Estradiol Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis
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    Chapter 16 Brain Estrogens and Feeding Behavior
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    Chapter 17 Sex Differences and Role of Estradiol in Hypoglycemia-Associated Counter-Regulation
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    Chapter 18 The Role of Estrogens in Pancreatic Islet Physiopathology
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    Chapter 19 Nuclear and Membrane Actions of Estrogen Receptor Alpha: Contribution to the Regulation of Energy and Glucose Homeostasis
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    Chapter 20 G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) and Sex-Specific Metabolic Homeostasis
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    Chapter 21 Sex-Dependent Role of Estrogen Sulfotransferase and Steroid Sulfatase in Metabolic Homeostasis
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    Chapter 22 Negative Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Therapy on Metabolic and Sexual Function in Men
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    Chapter 23 Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)
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    Chapter 24 Sex Differences in Androgen Regulation of Metabolism in Nonhuman Primates
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    Chapter 25 Prenatal Testosterone Programming of Insulin Resistance in the Female Sheep
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    Chapter 26 The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women
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    Chapter 27 Sex, Gender, and Transgender: Metabolic Impact of Cross Hormone Therapy
Attention for Chapter 10: Origins and Functions of the Ventrolateral VMH: A Complex Neuronal Cluster Orchestrating Sex Differences in Metabolism and Behavior
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Chapter title
Origins and Functions of the Ventrolateral VMH: A Complex Neuronal Cluster Orchestrating Sex Differences in Metabolism and Behavior
Chapter number 10
Book title
Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-70178-3_10
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-970177-6, 978-3-31-970178-3
Authors

William C. Krause, Holly A. Ingraham

Abstract

The neuroendocrine brain or hypothalamus has emerged as one of the most highly sexually dimorphic brain regions in mammals, and specifically in rodents. It is not surprising that hypothalamic nuclei play a pivotal role in controlling sex-dependent physiology. This brain region functions as a chief executive officer or master regulator of homeostatic physiological systems to integrate both external and internal signals. In this review, we describe sex differences in energy homeostasis that arise in one area of the hypothalamus, the ventrolateral subregion of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) with a focus on how male and female neurons function in metabolic and behavioral aspects. Because other chapters within this book provide details on signaling pathways in the VMH that contribute to sex differences in metabolism, our discussion will be limited to how the sexually dimorphic VMHvl develops and what key regulators are thought to control the many functional and physiological endpoints attributed to this region. In the last decade, several exciting new studies using state-of-the-art genetic and molecular tools are beginning to provide some understanding as to how specific neurons contribute to the coordinated physiological responses needed by male and females. New technology that combines intersectional spatial and genetic approaches is now allowing further refinement in how we describe, probe, and manipulate critical male and female neurocircuits involved in metabolism.

Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 28 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 28 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 32%
Student > Bachelor 4 14%
Student > Master 4 14%
Researcher 3 11%
Professor 2 7%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 4 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 8 29%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 18%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 18%
Medicine and Dentistry 4 14%
Environmental Science 1 4%
Other 1 4%
Unknown 4 14%