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Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity

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Cover of 'Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity'

Table of Contents

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    Book Overview
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    Chapter 1 Epidemiology of Gender Differences in Diabetes and Obesity
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    Chapter 2 Sex Differences in Body Composition
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    Chapter 3 Cellular Mechanisms Driving Sex Differences in Adipose Tissue Biology and Body Shape in Humans and Mouse Models
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    Chapter 4 Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: Sex Differences in Insulin Action and Secretion
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    Chapter 5 The Role of Sex and Sex Hormones in Regulating Obesity-Induced Inflammation
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    Chapter 6 Sex Differences in Leptin Control of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Metabolic Diseases
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    Chapter 7 Sex Effects at the Ramparts: Nutrient- and Microbe-Mediated Regulation of the Immune-Metabolic Interface
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    Chapter 8 Sexual Dimorphism and Estrogen Action in Mouse Liver
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    Chapter 9 Sex Differences in Muscle Wasting
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    Chapter 10 Origins and Functions of the Ventrolateral VMH: A Complex Neuronal Cluster Orchestrating Sex Differences in Metabolism and Behavior
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    Chapter 11 Menopause, Estrogens, and Glucose Homeostasis in Women
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    Chapter 12 Role of Estrogens in the Regulation of Liver Lipid Metabolism
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    Chapter 13 The Role of Skeletal Muscle Estrogen Receptors in Metabolic Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity
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    Chapter 14 Estrogens and Body Weight Regulation in Men
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    Chapter 15 Estradiol Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis
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    Chapter 16 Brain Estrogens and Feeding Behavior
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    Chapter 17 Sex Differences and Role of Estradiol in Hypoglycemia-Associated Counter-Regulation
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    Chapter 18 The Role of Estrogens in Pancreatic Islet Physiopathology
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    Chapter 19 Nuclear and Membrane Actions of Estrogen Receptor Alpha: Contribution to the Regulation of Energy and Glucose Homeostasis
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    Chapter 20 G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) and Sex-Specific Metabolic Homeostasis
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    Chapter 21 Sex-Dependent Role of Estrogen Sulfotransferase and Steroid Sulfatase in Metabolic Homeostasis
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    Chapter 22 Negative Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Therapy on Metabolic and Sexual Function in Men
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    Chapter 23 Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)
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    Chapter 24 Sex Differences in Androgen Regulation of Metabolism in Nonhuman Primates
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    Chapter 25 Prenatal Testosterone Programming of Insulin Resistance in the Female Sheep
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    Chapter 26 The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women
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    Chapter 27 Sex, Gender, and Transgender: Metabolic Impact of Cross Hormone Therapy
Attention for Chapter 23: Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)
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Chapter title
Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)
Chapter number 23
Book title
Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Metabolic Homeostasis, Diabetes and Obesity
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-70178-3_23
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-970177-6, 978-3-31-970178-3
Authors

Farid Saad

Abstract

Since the early 1990s, it has been recognized that testosterone (T) levels are lower in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with nondiabetic men (controls). Hypogonadism has been reported in approximately 50% of men with T2DM with robust correlations with measures of obesity, such as waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). In longitudinal studies, hypogonadism has been identified as a predictor of incident T2DM. Experimental withdrawal of T led to acute decreased insulin sensitivity, which can be reversed by normalization of T concentrations. Androgen deprivation therapy, commonly used in men with advanced prostate cancer, increases the risk of incident T2DM significantly.While short-term studies of T therapy in hypogonadal men with T2DM show only minor effects, long-term administration of T leads to meaningful and sustained improvements of glycemic control with parallel reductions in body weight and waist circumference. The more insulin-resistant and obese a patient is at the time of initiation of T therapy, the more improvements are noted. The observed effects are likely mediated by the increase in lean body mass invariably achieved by T therapy, as well as the improvement in energy and motivation, referred to as the psychotropic effects of T. As recommended by various guidelines, measuring T levels and, if indicated, restoring men's T levels into the normal physiological range can have a substantial impact on ameliorating T2DM in hypogonadal men.

Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 41 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 41 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 5 12%
Student > Master 5 12%
Student > Bachelor 4 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 5%
Other 2 5%
Other 8 20%
Unknown 15 37%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 13 32%
Nursing and Health Professions 5 12%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 2%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 2%
Social Sciences 1 2%
Other 3 7%
Unknown 17 41%