Copper: Effects of Deficiency and Overload
Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases
Metal ions in life sciences, November 2013
Ivo Scheiber, Ralf Dringen, Julian F. B. Mercer, Scheiber, Ivo, Dringen, Ralf, Mercer, Julian F. B.
Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel, Roland K.O. Sigel
Copper is an essential trace metal that is required for the catalysis of several important cellular enzymes. However, since an excess of copper can also harm cells due to its potential to catalyze the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species, transport of copper and the cellular copper content are tightly regulated. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on the importance of copper for cellular processes and on the mechanisms involved in cellular copper uptake, storage and export. In addition, we will give an overview on disturbances of copper homeostasis that are characterized by copper overload or copper deficiency or have been connected with neurodegenerative disorders.
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