↓ Skip to main content

Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases

Overview of attention for book
Attention for Chapter 6: Chromium: Is It Essential, Pharmacologically Relevant, or Toxic?
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#14 of 133)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (88th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 blog
5 Wikipedia pages
1 Redditor
1 Q&A thread


142 Dimensions

Readers on

49 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Chapter title
Chromium: Is It Essential, Pharmacologically Relevant, or Toxic?
Chapter number 6
Book title
Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases
Published in
Metal ions in life sciences, November 2013
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_6
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-9-40-077499-5, 978-9-40-077500-8

John B Vincent, Vincent JB, John B. Vincent, Vincent, John B.


Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel, Roland K.O. Sigel


Over fifty years ago, the element chromium (as the trivalent ion) was proposed to be an essential element for mammals with a role in maintaining proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Evidence for an essential role came from dietary studies with rodents, studies on the effects of chromium on subjects on total parenteral nutrition, and studies of the absorption and transport of chromium. Over the next several decades, chromium-containing nutritional supplements became so popular for weight loss and muscle development that sales were second only to calcium among mineral supplements. However, the failure to identify the responsible biomolecules(s) that bind chromium(III) and their mode of action, particularly a postulated species named glucose tolerance factor or GTF, resulted in the status of chromium being questioned in recent years, such that the question of its being essential needs to be formally readdressed. At the same time as chromium(III)'s popularity as a nutritional supplement was growing, concerns over its safety appeared. While chromium has been conclusively shown not to have beneficial effects on body mass or composition and should be removed from the list of essential trace elements, chromium(III) compounds are generally nontoxic and have beneficial pharmacological effects in rodents models of insulin insensitivity, although human studies have not conclusively shown any beneficial effects. Mechanisms have been proposed for these pharmacological effects, but all suffer from a lack of consistent supporting evidence.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 49 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Singapore 1 2%
Unknown 48 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 10 20%
Student > Bachelor 9 18%
Student > Master 6 12%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 8%
Professor 3 6%
Other 6 12%
Unknown 11 22%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 8 16%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 8 16%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 10%
Chemistry 4 8%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 2 4%
Other 7 14%
Unknown 15 31%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 11. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 October 2021.
All research outputs
of 22,184,831 outputs
Outputs from Metal ions in life sciences
of 133 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 292,577 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Metal ions in life sciences
of 4 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,184,831 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 87th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 133 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 7.0. This one has done well, scoring higher than 89% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 292,577 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 4 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them