Function and Regulation of Fungal Amino Acid Transporters: Insights from Predicted Structure.
Yeast Membrane Transport
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2016
Gournas, Christos, Prévost, Martine, Krammer, Eva-Maria, André, Bruno, Christos Gournas, Martine Prévost, Eva-Maria Krammer, Bruno André
Amino acids constitute a major nutritional source for probably all fungi. Studies of model species such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans have shown that they possess multiple amino acid transporters. These proteins belong to a limited number of superfamilies, now defined according to protein fold in addition to sequence criteria, and differ in subcellular location, substrate specificity range, and regulation. Structural models of several of these transporters have recently been built, and the detailed molecular mechanisms of amino acid recognition and translocation are now being unveiled. Furthermore, the particular conformations adopted by some of these transporters in response to amino acid binding appear crucial to promoting their ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis and/or to triggering signaling responses. We here summarize current knowledge, derived mainly from studies on S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans, about the transport activities, regulation, and sensing role of fungal amino acid transporters, in relation to predicted structure.
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