TMV-Based Adapter Templates for Enhanced Enzyme Loading in Biosensor Applications
Virus-Derived Nanoparticles for Advanced Technologies
Methods in molecular biology, January 2018
Claudia Koch, Arshak Poghossian, Christina Wege, Michael J. Schöning, Koch, Claudia, Poghossian, Arshak, Wege, Christina, Schöning, Michael J.
Nanotubular tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particles and RNA-free lower-order coat protein (CP) aggregates have been employed as enzyme carriers in different diagnostic layouts and compared for their influence on biosensor performance. In the following, we describe a label-free electrochemical biosensor for improved glucose detection by use of TMV adapters and the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD). A specific and efficient immobilization of streptavidin-conjugated GOD ([SA]-GOD) complexes on biotinylated TMV nanotubes or CP aggregates was achieved via bioaffinity binding. Glucose sensors with adsorptively immobilized [SA]-GOD, and with [SA]-GOD cross-linked with glutardialdehyde, respectively, were tested in parallel on the same sensor chip. Comparison of these sensors revealed that TMV adapters enhanced the amperometric glucose detection remarkably, conveying highest sensitivity, an extended linear detection range and fastest response times. These results underline a great potential of an integration of virus/biomolecule hybrids with electronic transducers for applications in biosensorics and biochips. Here, we describe the fabrication and use of amperometric sensor chips combining an array of circular Pt electrodes, their loading with GOD-modified TMV nanotubes (and other GOD immobilization methods), and the subsequent investigations of the sensor performance.
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