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Avian Reproduction

Overview of attention for book
Attention for Chapter 3: Female Reproductive System and Immunology
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Chapter title
Female Reproductive System and Immunology
Chapter number 3
Book title
Avian Reproduction
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-3975-1_3
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-9-81-103974-4, 978-9-81-103975-1
Authors

Yukinori Yoshimura, Animesh Barua

Abstract

Health of the reproductive organs is essential for formation and production of high quality and hygienic eggs. It is of importance to review the structures and functions of female reproductive system for better understanding of the mechanism by which the eggs are formed. The unique functions of ovarian cells for follicular growth and differentiation as well as steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation are regulated by gonadotropins and gonadal steroids. The oviduct is responsible for egg formation, while the unique function to store sperms for a prolonged period takes place in the specific tissue of this organ. The unique innate and adaptive immuno-defense systems that play essential role to prevent infection are developed in the ovary and oviduct. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize the molecular pattern of microbes and initiate the immunoresponse are expressed in those organs. Avian β-defensins (AvBDs), a member of antimicrobial peptides, are synthesized by the ovarian and oviductal cells. Challenge of those cells by TLR ligands upregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn stimulate the expression of AvBDs. The adaptive immune system in the ovary and oviduct is also unique, since the migration of lymphocytes is enhanced by estrogens. In contrast to the development of immuno-defense system, spontaneous ovarian cancer and uterine fibroids appear more frequently in chickens than in mammals, and thus chickens could be used as a model for studying these diseases. Thus the avian reproductive organs have unique functions not only for egg formation but also for the immuno-defense system, which is essential for prevention of infection and production of hygienic eggs.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 50 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 50 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 10 20%
Student > Bachelor 8 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 7 14%
Lecturer 3 6%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 6%
Other 3 6%
Unknown 16 32%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 9 18%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 14%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 10%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 4%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 4%
Other 6 12%
Unknown 19 38%