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Avian Reproduction

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Attention for Chapter 7: Fertilization 2: Polyspermic Fertilization
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Chapter title
Fertilization 2: Polyspermic Fertilization
Chapter number 7
Book title
Avian Reproduction
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2017
DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-3975-1_7
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-9-81-103974-4, 978-9-81-103975-1
Authors

Shusei Mizushima

Abstract

During fertilization in animals, a haploid egg nucleus fuses with a haploid sperm nucleus to restore the diploid genome. In most animals including mammals, echinoderms, and teleostei, the penetration of only one sperm into an egg is ensured at fertilization because the entry of two or more sperm is prevented by polyspermy block systems in these eggs. On the other hand, several animals such as birds, reptiles, and most urodele amphibians exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm into one egg is permitted. However, in these polyspermic eggs, only one sperm nucleus is involved in zygotic formation with a female nucleus, thereby avoiding syngamy with multiple sperm nuclei. In the chicken, 20-60 sperm are generally found within the egg cytoplasm at fertilization and this number is markedly higher than that of other polyspermic species; however, avian-specific events such as the degeneration and mitosis of supernumerary sperm nuclei during early embryo development allow a polyspermic egg to develop normally. This chapter describes current knowledge on polyspermy-related events in avian eggs during fertilization, and is characterized by a comparison to the fertilization modes of other vertebrates. The close relationship between sperm numbers and egg sizes, and the movement of supernumerary sperm nuclei towards the periphery of the egg cytoplasm and their degeneration are summarized. The molecular mechanisms by which polyspermy initiates egg activation to start embryo development are also discussed.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 22 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 22 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 18%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 9%
Student > Bachelor 2 9%
Lecturer 1 5%
Professor 1 5%
Other 3 14%
Unknown 9 41%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 18%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 18%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 9%
Neuroscience 1 5%
Unspecified 1 5%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 10 45%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 October 2017.
All research outputs
#20,449,496
of 23,005,189 outputs
Outputs from Advances in experimental medicine and biology
#3,986
of 4,961 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#356,165
of 421,224 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Advances in experimental medicine and biology
#414
of 490 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 23,005,189 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,961 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.1. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 421,224 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 490 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.