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Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols

Overview of attention for book
Cover of 'Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols'

Table of Contents

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    Book Overview
  2. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 1 Long-Term Ex Situ Conservation of Biological Resources and the Role of Biological Resource Centers
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    Chapter 2 Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols
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    Chapter 3 Principles of cryopreservation.
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    Chapter 4 Lyophilization of Proteins
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    Chapter 5 Vacuum-Drying and Cryopreservation of Prokaryotes
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    Chapter 6 Freeze-drying of yeast cultures.
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    Chapter 7 Cryopreservation of Yeast Cultures
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    Chapter 8 Freeze-Drying Fungi Using a Shelf-Freeze Drier
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    Chapter 9 Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying of Fungi Employing Centrifugal and Shelf Freeze-Drying
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    Chapter 10 Cryopreservation of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria
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    Chapter 11 Cryopreservation of Plant Cell Suspensions
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    Chapter 12 Cryopreservation of Shoot Tips and Meristems
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    Chapter 13 Cryopreservation of Desiccation-Tolerant Seeds
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    Chapter 14 Cryopreservation of Fish Sperm
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    Chapter 15 Cryopreservation of Avian Spermatozoa
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    Chapter 16 Cryopreservation of Animal and Human Cell Lines
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    Chapter 17 Cryopreservation of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells for Therapeutic Use
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    Chapter 18 Cryopreservation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines
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    Chapter 19 Cryopreservation of Primary Animal Cell Cultures
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    Chapter 20 Cryopreservation of Red Blood Cells and Platelets
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    Chapter 21 Cryopreservation of Mammalian Semen
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    Chapter 22 Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocytes
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    Chapter 23 Cryopreservation of Mammalian Embryos
Attention for Chapter 3: Principles of cryopreservation.
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (93rd percentile)

Mentioned by

3 news outlets
1 blog
1 X user
8 Wikipedia pages
2 YouTube creators


120 Dimensions

Readers on

483 Mendeley
2 CiteULike
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Chapter title
Principles of cryopreservation.
Chapter number 3
Book title
Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols
Published in
Methods in molecular biology, January 2007
DOI 10.1007/978-1-59745-362-2_3
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-1-58829-377-0, 978-1-59745-362-2

David E. Pegg, Pegg, David E, Pegg, David E.


John G. Day, Glyn N. Stacey


Cryopreservation is the use of very low temperatures to preserve structurally intact living cells and tissues. Unprotected freezing is normally lethal and this chapter seeks to analyze some of the mechanisms involved and to show how cooling can be used to produce stable conditions that preserve life. The biological effects of cooling are dominated by the freezing of water, which results in the concentration of the solutes that are dissolved in the remaining liquid phase. Rival theories of freezing injury have envisaged either that ice crystals pierce or tease apart the cells, destroying them by direct mechanical action, or that damage is from secondary effects via changes in the composition of the liquid phase. Cryoprotectants, simply by increasing the total concentration of all solutes in the system, reduce the amount of ice formed at any given temperature; but to be biologically acceptable they must be able to penetrate into the cells and have low toxicity. Many compounds have such properties, including glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanediol, and propanediol. In fact, both damaging mechanisms are important, their relative contributions depending on cell type, cooling rate, and warming rate. A consensus has developed that intracellular freezing is dangerous, whereas extracellular ice is harmless. If the water permeability of the cell membrane is known it is possible to predict the effect of cooling rate on cell survival and the optimum rate will be a tradeoff between the risk of intracellular freezing and effects of the concentrated solutes. However, extracellular ice is not always innocuous: densely packed cells are more likely to be damaged by mechanical stresses within the channels where they are sequestered and with complex multicellular systems it is imperative not only to secure cell survival but also to avoid damage to the extracellular structure. Ice can be avoided by vitrification--the production of a glassy state that is defined by the viscosity reaching a sufficiently high value (approximatly 10(13) poises) to behave like a solid, but without any crystallization. Toxicity is the major problem in the use of vitrification methods. Whether freezing is permitted (conventional cryopreservation) or prevented (vitrification), the cryoprotectant has to gain access to all parts of the system. However, there are numerous barriers to the free diffusion of solutes (membranes), and these can result in transient, and sometimes equilibrium, changes in compartment volumes and these can be damaging. Hence, the processes of diffusion and osmosis have important effects during the introduction of cryoprotectants, the removal of cryoprotectants, the freezing process, and during thawing. These phenomena are amenable to experiment and analysis, and this has made it possible to develop effective methods for the preservation of a very wide range of cells and some tissues; these methods have found widespread applications in biology and medicine.

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X Demographics

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 483 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 2 <1%
United States 2 <1%
Switzerland 1 <1%
Malaysia 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Chile 1 <1%
Canada 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Unknown 473 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 112 23%
Student > Master 82 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 67 14%
Researcher 39 8%
Student > Doctoral Student 20 4%
Other 37 8%
Unknown 126 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 112 23%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 69 14%
Engineering 38 8%
Medicine and Dentistry 36 7%
Chemistry 18 4%
Other 65 13%
Unknown 145 30%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 34. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 November 2021.
All research outputs
of 22,783,848 outputs
Outputs from Methods in molecular biology
of 13,094 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 156,795 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Methods in molecular biology
of 46 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,783,848 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 95th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 13,094 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 156,795 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 46 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.