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Biological Basis of Sex Differences in Psychopharmacology

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Cover of 'Biological Basis of Sex Differences in Psychopharmacology'

Table of Contents

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    Book Overview
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    Chapter 93 Females are more vulnerable to drug abuse than males: evidence from preclinical studies and the role of ovarian hormones.
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    Chapter 94 Sex differences in response to stress and expression of depressive-like behaviours in the rat.
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    Chapter 95 Sex Differences in the Septo-Hippocampal Cholinergic System in Rats: Behavioral Consequences
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    Chapter 96 Gender Differences in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Autism and Fragile X Syndrome
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    Chapter 97 Importance of the COMT Gene for Sex Differences in Brain Function and Predisposition to Psychiatric Disorders
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    Chapter 99 Sex Differences Precipitating Anorexia Nervosa in Females: The Estrogen Paradox and a Novel Framework for Targeting Sex-Specific Neurocircuits and Behavior
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    Chapter 100 Estrogens and Gonadal Function in Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses
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    Chapter 116 Biological Basis of Sex Differences in Psychopharmacology
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    Chapter 117 Sex Differences and Hormonal Influences in Human Sensorimotor Gating: Implications for Schizophrenia
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    Chapter 118 The Impact of Gender on Antidepressants
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    Chapter 120 Female Rats Are Smarter than Males: Influence of Test, Oestrogen Receptor Subtypes and Glutamate
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    Chapter 127 Oestradiol and Psychosis: Clinical Findings and Biological Mechanisms
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    Chapter 136 Introduction to the Interaction Between Gonadal Steroids and the Central Nervous System
Attention for Chapter 94: Sex differences in response to stress and expression of depressive-like behaviours in the rat.
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Chapter title
Sex differences in response to stress and expression of depressive-like behaviours in the rat.
Chapter number 94
Book title
Biological Basis of Sex Differences in Psychopharmacology
Published in
Current topics in behavioral neurosciences, July 2011
DOI 10.1007/7854_2010_94
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-64-220005-2, 978-3-64-220006-9

Dalla C, Pitychoutis PM, Kokras N, Papadopoulou-Daifoti Z, Christina Dalla, Pothitos M. Pitychoutis, Nikolaos Kokras, Zeta Papadopoulou-Daifoti


Women are more susceptible than men to certain stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Preclinical studies aim to understand these sex differences by studying male and female rats in stress models. In this chapter, we review sex differences in behavioural aspects, as well as neurochemical and neurobiological findings derived from acute, repeated and chronic stress models. In particular, we focus on sex differences in depressive-like symptomatology expressed in the forced swim test, the chronic mild stress (CMS) and the learned helplessness models, the Flinders Sensitive Line rats (FSL), which is a genetic model of depression and in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviour, a putative inflammatory model of depression. Also, sex differences in stress effects on learning and memory parameters are discussed, because cognitive alterations are often seen in sex-differentiated psychiatric disorders. The observed behavioural alterations are often linked with abnormalities in the endophenotype, such as in hormonal, neurochemical, immune and neuroplasticity indices. From these data, it is clear that all stress models have strengths and limitations that need to be recognized in order to use them effectively in the investigation of sex differences in affective disorders.

Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 88 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 1%
Canada 1 1%
Unknown 86 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 17 19%
Researcher 14 16%
Student > Bachelor 14 16%
Student > Master 12 14%
Student > Postgraduate 5 6%
Other 18 20%
Unknown 8 9%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 20 23%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 19 22%
Psychology 11 13%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 7%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 6%
Other 10 11%
Unknown 17 19%