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Temperature and Environmental Effects on the Testis

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Cover of 'Temperature and Environmental Effects on the Testis'

Table of Contents

  1. Altmetric Badge
    Book Overview
  2. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 1 Views of Testicular Function from Antiquity to the Present
  3. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 2 Thermoregulation of the Scrotum and Testis: Studies in Animals and Significance for Man
  4. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 3 Effects of elevated temperature on the epididymis and testis: experimental studies.
  5. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 4 Effects of Temperature on the Biochemistry of the Testis
  6. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 5 Epidemiologic Aspects of the Relationship Between Temperature and Male Reproduction
  7. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 6 Seasonal Patterns of Births and Conception Throughout the World
  8. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 7 Temperature and the seasonality of births.
  9. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 8 Seasonal Variation in Human Semen Quality
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    Chapter 9 Theoretical and Practical Considerations in Scrotal Temperature Measurement
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    Chapter 10 Non-Invasive Scrotal Thermometry
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    Chapter 11 Deep Body Intrascrotal Thermometer: Theory and Methodology
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    Chapter 12 A theoretical model for testis thermoregulation.
  14. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 13 The Multi-Level Compartmentation of the Simulation Models of the Counter-Current Heat Exchange (CCHE) Mechanism of the Testis
  15. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 14 The Physiology of Testicular Thermoregulation in the Light of New Anatomical and Pathological Aspects
  16. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 15 Effect of Local Heating on Scrotal Temperature
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    Chapter 16 Is Testicular Function in Immature Rats Increased Rather Than Decreased by a Moderate Increase in Temperature?
  18. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 17 The Effect of Intermittent Scrotal Hyperthermia on the Sprague-Dawley Rat Testicle
  19. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 18 Human Scrotal Temperature During Heat Exposure Associated with Passive Leg Heating
  20. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 19 Effect of Medullary Lesions on Scrotal Thermoregulation: A Preliminary Study
  21. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 20 Intrinsic Testicular Temperature Elevation and Subfertile Semen
  22. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 21 Scrotal Hyperthermia: Frequency in an Infertile Population and Associated Alterations in Testicular Function
  23. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 22 Scrotal Hyperthermia; Etiologic Factors: Facts and Hypotheses
  24. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 23 Testicular Hyperthermia: Physiopathology, Diagnostic and Therapeutical Concepts
  25. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 24 Hypothesis to Explain Subfertile Semen
  26. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 25 Chronic Scrotal Hypothermia
  27. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 26 Heat Induced Inhibition of Spermatogenesis in Man
  28. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 27 Scrotal Hyperthermia and Varicocele
  29. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 28 The significance of elevated scrotal temperature in an adolescent with a varicocele.
  30. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 29 Deep Body Temperature Measurement for the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Varicocele
  31. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 30 A Comparative Study of the Diagnostic Value of Telethermography and Contact Thermography in the Diagnosis of Varicocele
  32. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 31 Scrotal Thermography in Varicocele
  33. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 32 The ROCC Analysis of Five Different Methods in the Diagnosis of Varicocele
  34. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 33 The Pathogenesis of Epididymo-Testicular Dysfunction in Varicocele: Factors other than Temperature
  35. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 34 Varicocelectomy: Effect on Fertility
Attention for Chapter 3: Effects of elevated temperature on the epididymis and testis: experimental studies.
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (92nd percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (73rd percentile)

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Chapter title
Effects of elevated temperature on the epididymis and testis: experimental studies.
Chapter number 3
Book title
Temperature and Environmental Effects on the Testis
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 1991
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4684-5913-5_3
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-1-4684-5915-9, 978-1-4684-5913-5

J. Michael Bedford, Bedford, J. Michael


The effects of temperature on the male tract have been examined in the rat, rabbit and hamster, as well as other species that include a naturally cryptorchid rodent, the degu, and an insectivore, the musk shrew. In principle, a small increase in the temperature of the testis does not destroy the germinal epithelium; however, it reduces testis weight and sperm production and brings a greater incidence of morphologically abnormal spermatids and spermatozoa. This demonstrates that the testis can be partially suppressed yet remain functional in the face of moderate elevation in its ambient temperature. Selective imposition of abdominal temperature on the epididymis alone does not suppress sperm maturation there, and bilaterally cryptepididymal males remain fertile for long periods. However, deep body temperature changes at least the ionic and protein composition of cauda fluid by virtue of effects on the cauda epithelium, and it eliminates the special ability of the cauda to store and prolong the life of spermatozoa. Additionally, deep body temperature also immediately curtails the storage capacity of the cauda epididymidis, an effect that is reflected in a reduced diameter and apparently length of that segment of the cauda as well as vas deferens, which contracts during orgasm to provide the bulk of the ejaculate. One consequence of this, notwithstanding a normal sperm production by the testis, is a much smaller number of spermatozoa in the first ejaculate, and an atypically steep decline in the number in subsequent ejaculates produced by cryptepididymal males. Further effects of deep body temperature on the epididymis are seen in significantly faster (rabbit) sperm transport through it, and a reduction in the time required for capacitation of (hamster) spermatozoa, in vitro and in vivo. Man's scrotal surface temperature is chronically elevated by several degrees in the clothed state. Although observations are lacking for human "control" populations, certain of the temperature-related phenomena described in animals are nevertheless suggested variably in different measurable functions of the human male reproductive tract. These include a relatively low number produced/gm of testis and a poorer quality of spermatozoa released from it, a rapid epididymal transport and minimally developed sperm storage system in the cauda epididymidis. Finally, the character of the ejaculated spermatozoa in several respects may imply an imminent state of capacitation. In all, this circumstantial evidence makes it seem possible that the human epididymis as well as the testis often exists in a state of temperature-induced partial suppression.

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X Demographics

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 18 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Chile 1 6%
Unknown 17 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 5 28%
Researcher 5 28%
Professor 1 6%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 6%
Student > Postgraduate 1 6%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 5 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 39%
Psychology 2 11%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 6%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 6%
Social Sciences 1 6%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 6 33%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 7. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 January 2024.
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Altmetric has tracked 26,177,525 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 79th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,256 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 7.2. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its peers.
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