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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Overview of attention for book
Attention for Chapter 3: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology.
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (84th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet


3 Dimensions

Readers on

55 Mendeley
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Chapter title
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology.
Chapter number 3
Book title
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Published in
Reviews of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, September 2004
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-9100-3_3
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-1-4612-6494-1, 978-1-4419-9100-3

Gill U, Chu I, Ryan JJ, Feeley M, Udai Gill, Ih Chu, John J. Ryan, Mark Feeley, Gill, Udai, Chu, Ih, Ryan, John J., Feeley, Mark


PBDEs are being released to the environment in wastes from their production facilities, degradation, or leaching and volatilization from products that contain PBDEs during the product's useful life. Brominated diphenyl ether congeners BDE-47, -99, and -153 are ubiquitous in the environment and are regarded as the most dominant congeners present in wildlife and humans. The tetra- to hexa-BDE are most likely the congeners to which humans are exposed through food consumption. Knowledge of PBDE uptake, metabolism, elimination, and enzyme induction is restricted largely to rodents (rats and mice) in vitro and in vivo. Feeding studies have shown that excretion of higher brominated BDEs is much greater than lower brominated BDEs. Penta-BDE is more toxic than octa- and deca-BDE following oral administration (oral LD50 in rats, 0.5-5 g/kg). In rodents, repeated exposure to PBDEs results in thyroid hormone disruption, developmental neurotoxicity, some changes of fetal development, and hepatotoxic effects. The observed chronic NOELs depend upon the technical mixture type (i.e., deca-, octa-, or penta- and their congener composition), animal species, and study protocol. Values range from 0.6 to 100 mg/kg in rats and from I to 100 mg/kg in mice. PBDEs are neither mutagenic nor genotoxic. Immunotoxicity in mice is observed following exposure to BDE-47 at 18 mg/kg/d, where splenocyte number decreased. Mice exposed neonatally to a single oral dose of BDE-47(10.5 mg/kg) or BDE-99 (12 mg/kg) on Pnd10 (period of rapid brain growth and development) show permanent impairment of spontaneous motor behavior when reaching adulthood. BDE-99 also induced adverse effects on learning and memory functions of mice. The estimated daily intake based on food consumption for PBDEs ranges from 44 to 51 ng/d, with fish contributing almost one-half. The BDE-99 body burden from a human milk survey can be estimated at 0.64 microg/kg, well below the experimental body burden of 0.4 mg/kg BDE-99 associated with behavioral alterations in neonatal mice. When considering the outlier value for PBDE-99 at 229 ng/g, this would result in an estimated PBDE-99 body burden of 46 microg/kg, or a MOS of only 9. However, no toxicokinetics data are available for humans, and the actual margin of safety may be much smaller if based on levels in critical target organs or tissues.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 55 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 2%
Switzerland 1 2%
Unknown 53 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 11 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 18%
Student > Master 7 13%
Student > Bachelor 3 5%
Professor 3 5%
Other 11 20%
Unknown 10 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 16%
Environmental Science 9 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 9%
Chemistry 4 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 4%
Other 10 18%
Unknown 16 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 7. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 May 2014.
All research outputs
of 3,746,945 outputs
Outputs from Reviews of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology
of 47 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 95,872 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Reviews of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 3,746,945 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 87th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 47 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.5. This one scored the same or higher as 42 of them.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 95,872 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them